Report Text: Farming

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Farming is the oldest occupation of the world and it is still the means of living for greatest percentage of the world’s population. Farming produces commodities that are converted into food and other products such as natural fibers, dairy products, and animals’ feed.

There are three types of farming. The first type is called subsistence farming which can be found in developing countries such as Indonesia, India, and Thailand. The small subsistence farm produces yields that are mostly used for family consumption. Farmers have small pieces of land cultivate and labour is done by members of the family and, sometimes, neighbours, or friends. They use a portion of their products for their own food, a small portion for labour, and the rest for their other daily needs. This type of farming runs very well because it satisfies the needs of the farmers and their families. Although most farmers stay at the subsistence level, some farmers eventually become rich, own good houses and furniture, and can send their children to the university.

The second type is called collective farming which can be found in countries like China, Russia, and Poland. By laws, a group of farmers is given the freedom to cultivate their land, choose their own leader, and decide on the management of their farming. In practice, however, the central authorities make the planning, decide on the crops to plant, set production targets, and control the prices of the products. Collective farming sometimes runs so well that farmers’ groups not only manage their farming but they also run other activities such as marketing, cooperatives, collective saving, and so on. Collective farming does not produce rich farmers, but the life and welfare of each of the families are insured.

The third type is called commercial farming which can be found in developed countries such as Canada, North America, and New Zealand. The basis of this type of farming is still family farming, but labour and management are conducted in such professional ways that are compatible with the modern commerce and industrialization of the community. In this type of farming, each farmer has a large area of land cultivated in a highly-mechanized process. Each farm highly commercialized and capitalized and the farmers produce mainly for the market. It is predicted that one person in the farm produces rich farmers. Many farmers’ families are some of the richest families in the  country and members of the family may become presidents or other high-ranked influential persons of the country.
[taken from Functional English by Bambang Sugeng and Noor Zaimah]

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